Synthesis and characterizations of zinc oxide based nanofluids for heat transfer improvement in single tube circular heat exchangers


  • Waqar Ahmed Institute of Advance Studies, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Departments of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Kazi Md Salim Newaz Departments of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Zaira Zaman Chowdhury Nanotechnologies and Catalysis Research Center (NANOCAT), University of Malaya, Malaysia
  • Muhammad Rafie Bin Johan Nanotechnologies and Catalysis Research Center (NANOCAT), University of Malaya, Malaysia
  • Muhammad Mujtaba Abbas Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, New Campus Lahore, Pakistan
  • Manzoore Elahi Muhammad Soudagar Departments of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


characterizations, heat transfer coefficient, preparation of ZnO-DW fluids, Reynolds, Synthesis of ZnO


The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by Sono-chemical technique and later characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis, FESEM, and EDX to confirm the proper synthesis.  The two-step preparation of ZnO-DW based nanofluids were achieved after dispersing ZnO nanoparticles in the base fluid (DW) by using high probe sonicator, where four different (0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1) wt.% concentrations of ZnO-DW based nanofluids were prepared.  All the ZnO-DW based nanofluids were investigated thoroughly about the different thermo physical properties and their optimistic effects on improvement of heat transfer coefficient in a circular heat exchanger.  The thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, density etc. of ZnO-DW based nanofluids showed some promising effects on heat transfer improvement, friction factor and pumping power in a circular heat exchanger.  Experimental investigations on heat transfer characteristics were conducted in a circular heat exchanger with constant heat flux boundary condition and at different Reynolds numbers in the turbulent flow regime.  The addition of ZnO solid nanoparticles (7g) in the base fluid (DW/7L) provided a surprising improvement of about 37% in the thermal conductivity.  The maximum improvement in heat transfer at the highest concentration of 0.1 wt.% ZnO-DW based nanofluid was about 52% more than that of the base fluid.  Consolidated results of the experimental investigations with ZnO-DW based nanofluids revealed that the specified nanofluid could be suitable for heat transfer applications.


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How to Cite

Ahmed, W. ., Kazi Md Salim Newaz, Zaira Zaman Chowdhury, Muhammad Rafie Bin Johan, Muhammad Mujtaba Abbas, & Manzoore Elahi Muhammad Soudagar. (2023). Synthesis and characterizations of zinc oxide based nanofluids for heat transfer improvement in single tube circular heat exchangers. Journal of Current Science and Technology, 10(2), 217–228. Retrieved from



Research Article