A study on thermal efficiency of downdraft gasifier (swirl air type)
Keywords:biomass, biomass fuel, bamboo node, downdraft gasifier (swirl air type), producer gas, thermal efficiency
This paper presents the analysis of properties of bamboo node, as a potential fuel for gasifiers. Both Proximate and Ultimate Analysis are used. The physical properties of bamboo node contain 5.89% moisture, 70.48% volatile matter, 20.73% fixed carbon and 2.9% ash, while its chemical properties consist of H, C, N, O and S of 5.98, 44.76, 0.11, 46.21, and 0.04%, respectively. The higher and lower heating value of 17,417.09 kJ/kg and 16,161 kJ/kg are evaluated. The properties found indicate that the bamboo node has good potential for biomass fuel application. Besides the property analyses, the bamboo node, as a fuel for gasifiers, is tested in the proposed downdraft gasifier (swirl type), which was developed from the conventional downdraft gasifier. The proposed downdraft gasifier (swirl air type) has a cylindrical furnace, 1.35 m. in length. The combustion zone has two walls – the inner wall in a fireproof mortar and the outer layer consists of a steel sheet. It has a thermal capacity of 4.74 kW. The resulted producer gas from the proposed gasifier consists of CO, CH4, H2, CO2, N2 and O2 of 30.0837, 0.2933, 25.1701, 17.0366, 23.955, and 3.4613% by volume, respectively, with thermal efficiency of 70.44%, which is 2.99% higher than that of the conventional downdraft gasifier, because the combustion zone of this downdraft gasifier (swirl air type) is designed by using air inlet circular flow as a nozzle-like injection.
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