Innovation for plant-based foods: Allergen-free vegan meat and egg products from rice processing by-products
Keywords:allergy free, bioactive compound, nutritional value, plant-based food, rice protein hydrolysate, vegan egg, vegan meat
This study aimed to develop plant-based vegan meat and egg products that still contain high nutritional and functional components from the by-products of rice processing. The ingredients such as rice malt, red rice malt, and bio-cellulose from rice kombucha processing were prepared and mixed to produce vegan meat and egg products. The optimal ratio of a rice protein hydrolysate, as an alternative emulsifier to commercial food hydrocolloid, was also investigated. The results showed that the vegan meat contained comparable content of protein and minerals, with 16 times lower fat and 3 times higher dietary fiber than the commercial vegan meat. Similarly, the vegan egg product contained the same content of protein and minerals, but with 14 times lower fat and 4 times higher fiber than the product from a real egg. The vegan meat and egg products contained higher polyphenol, antioxidant, ACE inhibitory peptide, D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) than the real meat, real egg, and commercial vegan products. The commercial hydrocolloid can be substituted by the natural rice protein hydrolysate at 70% and 100% for vegan meat and egg products, respectively. Both products exhibited comparable properties to the commercial products in terms of color, firmness, oil holding capacity, size expansion, as well as sensory attributes (color and taste). The shelf-life study indicated that the vegan meat and vegan egg powder could be stored at -18°C and at ambient temperature for 18 and 16 months, respectively. Product cost and pricing calculations showed that the products were highly competitive. This innovative research presented a high potential for further commercialization for allergen-free plant-based proteins.
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