Pharmacognostic specification of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves cultivated in Thailand
Keywords:Pharmacognostic specification, Moringa oleifera, leaves, macroscopic charateristic, microscopic characteristic, thin-layer chromatographic fingerprint
Moringa oleifera Lam. is a medicinal plant that belongs to the family Moringaceae, with a wide distribution in Thailand. All parts of this plant contain rich nutrients, making it an important food choice for both humans and livestock. Currently, Thai people eat its leaves to improve health, but there is a lack of any pharmacognostic specification data controlling its quality which will benefit both the seller and the consumer. In order to study pharmacognostic specification of M. oleifera Lam. leaves cultivated in Thailand, plant samples have been collected from 12 provinces distributed in 6 regions of Thailand. The evaluation was conducted according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for herbal standardization and Thai herbal Pharmacopoiea. Microscopic examination of this plant revealed characteristics of leaf tissue containing anomocytic stomata, parenchyma tissue containing calcium oxalate crystals, and several annular, reticulated and bordered pitted vessels. Starch or oil containing cells have not been found. Various factors were found to be constant for M. oleifera leaves, independent of harvest region: foreign matter (0.95%), total ash (11.77%), acid-insoluble ash (0.36%), moisture (10.14%), and loss on drying (11.34%). Further, ethanol and water extractive values were found to be 1.27%, and 7.83 % dry weight, respectively, meanwhile volatile content could not be detected. Additionally, thin-layer chromatographic fingerprinting of methanolic extract and water extract developed in suitable mobile phase system were also determined.
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