Bilingual nursing education for Thailand: Facing the challenges head-on
Keywords:bilingual education, bilingual nursing education for Thailand, bilingual nursing education programs
Bilingual nursing education has increasingly gained attention worldwide, and rightfully so, with global economic changes, an increased migration, and increased demand for quality care. This is particularly true in Thailand where the demand for bilingual healthcare providers is critical. The nursing profession, which comprises a very large percentage of the healthcare work force, is in direct contact with the growing number of foreign patients coming to Thailand for care. This has implications in the delivery of care and subsequently the quality of care outcomes. Attempts to meet these expectations are not without challenges. This paper addresses the history of bilingual education and the needs of bilingual nursing education for Thailand. It further reviews the bilingual nursing education in countries that have experience with programs that have been in effect for some time. It is hoped that programs in Thailand can gain insight from the experience in these countries that could be used to avoid mistakes and benefit from successes. The recommendations are formulated with the intention of positioning institutes of higher education in Thailand to be able to take advantage of the greatest opportunities for success.
Andersson, T., & Boyer, M. (1970). Bilingual Schooling in the United States. Austin, TX, USA: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
Angel, E., Craven, R., & Denson, N. (2012). The nurses’ self-concept instrument (NSCI): A comparison of domestic and International student nurses’ professional self-concepts from a large Australian University. Nurse Education Today, 32(6), 636-640. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2011.09.006.
Arocha, O., & Moore, D. V. (2011). The new Joint Commission standards for patient-center communication: White paper. Retrieved from http://www.languageline.com/main/files/wp_joint_commission_022211.pdf
Association of Southeast Asia Nations (n.d.): Overview. Retrieved from http:// www. aseansec. org/about_ASEAN.html
ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint (2008). Jakarta, Indonesia. Retrieved from http://www.aseansec.org/21083.pdf
Baker, W. (2008). A critical examination of ELT in Thailand: The role of cultural awareness. RELC Journal, 39(1), 131-146.
Baker, C., & Phongpaichit, P. (2005). A history of Thailand. Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press.
Caputi, L., Engelmann, L., & Stasinopoulos, J. (2006). An interdisciplinary approach to the needs of non-native speaking nursing students: conversation circles Nurse Educator, 31(3), 107-111.
Colosimo, R., & Xu, Y. (2006). Research on shame: Implications for English as a second language nursing students. Home Health Care Management Practice, 19, 72-75.
Crystal, D. (2003). English as a global language. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.
Davidhizer, R., & Shearer, R. (2005). When your nursing students is culturally diverse Health Care Manager, 24(4), 356-363.
Doutrich, D., Wros, P., Valdez, M., & Ruiz, M. (2005). Professional values of Hispanic nurses: The experience of nursing education. Hispanic Health Care International, 3(3), 161-170.
Dutcher, N., & Tucker, G. R. (1997). The use of first and second languages in education: A review of international experience. Washington, D. C., USA: Pacific Islands Discussion Paper Series: The World Bank.
Economic Intelligence Center (June, 2012). Medical tourism under threat. Retrieved from http://www.scb.co.th/eic/doc/en/articles/bkk/EIC%20In-PonderlandMedical%20Tourism%20under%20Threat.pdf
Evans, C. & Stevenson, K. (2009). The learning experiences of international doctoral students with particular reference to nursing students: a literature review International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(2), 239-250.
Foley, J. A. (2005). English in Thailand. RELC (Regional Language Centre Journal), 36(2), 223-234.
Fry, G. W. (2002). The evolution of educational reform in Thailand. Retrieved from http://www.worldedreform.com/intercon2/fly.pdf
Guhde, J. A. (2003). English-as-a-second language nursing students: Strategies for building verbal and written language skills. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 10(4), 113-117.
He, W., Xu, Y., & Zhu, J. (2011). Bilingual teaching in nursing education in China: Evolution, status, and future directions. Nursing & Health Sciences, 13, 371-377. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2018.2011.00623.x
Irvine, F. E., Roberts, G. W., Tranter, S., Williams, L., & Jones, P. (2008). Using the critical incident technique to explore student nurses’ perceptions of language awareness. Nurse Education Today, 28(1), 39-47.
Johnson, K. (Eds.). (2011). The patient beyond border. NC, United States: Chapel Hill.
King, L. (Eds.). (2003). Education in a multilingual world. UNESCO: Education position paper. Paris, France
Koch, J., Salamonson, Y., Du, H. Y., Andrew, S., Frost, S. A., Dunncliff, K., & Davidson, P. M. (2011). Value of web-based learning activities for nursing students who speak English as a second language. Journal of Nursing Education, 50(7), 373-380. doi: 10.3928/0148434-20110331-02
Lewis, M. P. (2009). Ethnologue: Languages of the World, (16th ed.). Dallas, Texas, USA: SIL International.
Mattila, L., Pitkäjärvi, M., & Eriksson, E. (2010). International student nurses’ experiences of clinical practice in the Finnish health care system. Nurse Education in Practice, 10(3), 153-157. doi: 10.1016/j.nepr.2009.05.009.
McDermott-Levy, R. (2011). Going alone: The lived experience of female Arab-Muslim nursing students living and studying in the United States. Nursing Outlook, 59(5), 266-277.e2. doi:10.1016/j.outlook.2011.02.006.
NaRanong, A., & NaRanong, V. (2011). The effects of medical tourism: Thailand’s experience. Bulletin of the World Health Organization.doi: 10.2471/BLT.09.072249.
National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN). (2011). 2010 Nurse Licensee Volume and NCLEXÒ Examination Statistics. Chicago, USA: Author.
Nieto, D. (Spring, 2009). A brief history of bilingual education in the United States. Perspectives on Urban Education. 61-72. Retrieved from http://www.urbanedjournal.org/sites/urbanedjournal.org/files/pdf_archive/61-72--Nieto.pdf
Olson, M. A. (2012). English-as-a-second language (ESL) nursing student success: A critical review of the literature. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 19(1), 26-31.
Sanner, S., & Wilson, A. (2008). The experiences of students with English as a second language in a baccalaureate nursing program. Nurse Education Today, 28, 807-813.
Sawaengdee, K. (2008). The current nursing workforce situation in Thailand. Journal of Health Systems Research, 2(1), 40-46.
Srisuphan, W., & Sawaengdee, K. (2012). Recommended policy-based solutions to shortage of registered nurses in Thailand. Thai Journal of Nursing Council, 27(1), 5-12.
Starr, K., (2009). Nursing education challenges: Students with English as an additional language. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(9), 478- 487.doi: 10.3928/01484834-20090610-01.
Suliman, W. A., & Tadros, A. (2011). Nursing students coping with English as a foreign language medium of instruction. Nurse Education Today, 31(4), 402- 407. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2010.07.014.
Sukamolson, S. (1998). English language education policy in Thailand. Asian Englishes, 1(1), 68-91.
Toh, G. (2003). Toward a more critical orientation to ELT in Southeast Asia. World Englishes, 22(4), 551-558.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.