Norm consolidation and resistance: The responsibility to protect
Keywords:responsibility to protect, international norms, United Nations
The creation and acceptance of new norms in international relations has received considerable attention from scholars. However, not all new norms are successfully consolidated. Much less attention has been given to the ways in which attempts to consolidate new norms are resisted or defeated. This paper reviews the theoretical literature on international norm formation and offers several hypotheses concerning strategies of norm resistance. The paper then examines an ongoing effort at norm consolidation, the “responsibility to protect” or R2P. This norm was seemingly accepted at the 2005 World Summit at the United Nations, but has encountered significant resistance in the subsequent six years. The paper will examine the support for the hypotheses concerning norm resistance using the R2P case, and will conclude with a discussion of the theoretical and policy implications of norm resistance.
Annan, K.A. (1999). The Question of Intervention. New York: United Nations Department of Public Information.
Evans, G. (2006). The Responsibility to Protect: From an Idea to an International Norm. International Crisis Group. Retrieved from http://www.crisigroup.org/
Evans, G. (2008). The Responsibility to Protect. Washington, D.C., USA: The Brookings Institution.
Farer, T. (1993). A Paradigm of Legitimate Intervention. In L.F. Damrosch (Ed.), Enforcing Restraint: Collective Intervention in Internal Conflicts (pp. 316-347). New York, USA: Council on Foreign Relations Press.
Finnemore, M. & Sikkink, K. (1998). International Norm Dynamics and Political Change. International Organization, 52, 887-917.
Florini, A. (1996). The Evolution of International Norms. International Studies Quarterly, 40, 363-89.
Frontline. (2007). Interview: Kieran Prendergast. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/Darfur/interviews/Prendergast
George, A. (1979). Case Studies and Theory Development. In P.G, Gordon (Ed.), Diplomacy: New Approaches in History, Theory and Policy (pp. 43-68). New York, USA: The Free Press.
Hoffmann, S. (1995-96). The Politics and Ethics of Military Intervention. Survival, 37, 29-51.
Hoge, W. (2005, September 10). Clash by Diplomats at U.N. Over Reform Bares Divisions. The New York Times. Retrieved from www.nytimes.com.
Hurd, I. (1999). Legitimacy and Authority in International Politics. International Organization, 53, 379-408.
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS). (2001). The Responsibility to Protect. Ottawa, Canada: The International Development Research Centre.
Johnstone, I. (2007). The Secretary-General as norm entrepreneur.In S. Chesterman (Ed.), Secretary or General? The UN Secretary General in World Politics (pp. 123-138). New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.
Kite, C. & Wimelius, M.E. (2007). Resisting International Norms: the cases of women’s rights and humanitarian intervention. Retrieved from www.allacademic.com/one/isa/isa07/
Lynch, C. (2005, August 25). U.S. Wants Changes In U.N. Agreement. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com
Patrick, S. (2001). The Evolution of International Norms: Choice, learning, Power, and Identity. In W.R. Thompson (Ed.), Evolutionary Interpretations of World Politics (pp. 133-74). New York, USA: Routledge.
Rice, S.E. (2009). Remarks on the U.N. Security Council and the Responsibility to Protect. Retrieved from http://usun.state.gov/briefing/statements/
Smith, T. (1994). In Defense of Intervention. Foreign Affairs, 73, 34-46.
Thakur, R. & Weiss, T.G. (2009). R2P: From Idea to Norm – and Action? Global Responsibility to Protect, 1, 22-53.
United Nations. (2005). Fact Sheet: 2005 World Summit Outcome. Retrieved from www.un.org/summit2005/documents
United Nations (2011). Security Council, 6627th Meeting Record. S/PV/6627. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/Depts/dhl/
Van Kersbergen, K. & Verbeek, B. (2007). The Politics of International Norms.European Journal of International Relations, 13, 217-238.
Weiss, T.G., Forsythe, D.P., Coate, R.A., & Pease, K. (2010).The United Nations and Changing World Politics. Boulder, CO, USA: Westview Press.
Wheeler, N.J. & Egerton, F. (2009). The Responsibility to Protect: ‘Precious Commitment’ or a Promise Unfulfilled? Global Responsibility to Protect, 1, 114-132.
Williamson, R.W. (2009). Sudan and the Responsibility to Protect. Muscatine, IA, USA: The Stanley Foundation.
Xinhua. (2009, July 24). Chinese diplomat: implementing ‘responsibility to protect’ must not contravene state sovereignty. etrieved from http://news.xinhua.com/English
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.