Development of a classroom discussion scale for self-assessment purposes by high school students and teachers


  • Darrin Thomas Asia-Pacific International University, Saraburi 18180, Thailand


classroom discussion, components, ESL students, high school students, international campus, information processing


Educators worldwide appreciate the value of discussion in ESL classrooms as a means to support the development of higher thinking skills as well as the language development of ESL students. However, there is a lack of instruments in identifying the main components of classroom discussion. The purpose of this study was to engage ESL high school students at an international campus in the task of developing a scale that would help students self-assess the key components of their classroom discussions. The study generated a 14-item scale with three main components, which are flow of ideas, information processing, and discussion barriers. The study used both orthogonal and oblique rotations of the factors. Cronbach’s alpha indicated that the scale was reliable. The development of this scale can be of use for researchers as an additional tool for assessing their learning environments.


Borich, G. (2011). Effective teaching methods: Researched-based practice (7th ed.). Boston, MA, USA: Pearson.

Brookfield, S., & Preskill, S. (2005). Discussion as a way of teaching. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.

Davis, H. (2013). Discussion as a bridge: Strategies that engage adolescent and adult learning styles in the postsecondary classroom. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 13(1), 68-76.

Everston, C., & Emmer, E. (2009). Classroom management for elementary teachers. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Pearson.

Ezzedeen, S. (2008). Facilitating class discussions around current and controversial issues: Ten recommendations for teachers. College Teaching, 56(4), 230-236.

Henning, J. (2005). Leading discussions: Opening up the conversation. College Teaching, 53(3), 90-94.

Henning, J., Nielsen, L., Henning, M., & Schulz, E. (2008). Designing discussion: Four ways to open up a dialog. The Social Studies, 99(3), 122-126. DOI: 10.3200/TSSS.99.3.122-126

Hickman, K. (2007). Literacy projects for student-centered classrooms: Tips and lessons to engage students. Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage.

Innes, R. (2007). Dialogic communication in collaborative problem solving groups. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 1(1), 1-19. DOI: 10.20429/ijsotl.2007.010104

Muller, H. (2014). A grounded practical theory reconstruction of the communication practice of instructor-facilitated collegiate classroom discussion. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 42(3), 325-342. DOI: 10.1080/00909882.2014.911941

Orenstein, A., & Hunkins, F. (2009). Curriculum: Foundations, principles, and issues. Boston, MA, USA: Pearson.

Quinn, R., & You, Z. (2010). Improving classroom discussion using an innovative structure. College Teaching, 58(3), 116-116. DOI: 10.1080/87567550903252744

Richards, J., & Rodgers, T. (2014). Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge.

Schunk, D. (2012). Learning theories: An educational perspective. Boston, USA: Allyn & Bacon.

Shafer, S. (2009). Promoting communication skills in the classroom. Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 74(6), 48-49.

Smith, M., Wood, W., Krauter, K., & Knight, J. (2011). Combining peer discussion with instructor explanation increases student learning from in-class concept questions. CBE Life Science Education, 10(1), 55-63. DOI: 10.1187/cbe.10-08-0101

Thomas, D. (2010). Classroom discussion in Southeast Asia: Concerns in Thai classrooms. International Forum, 13(2), 21-30.

Thomas, D. (2014). What are we suppose to do? Understanding mission in the context of Thailand. Saraburi, Thailand: SuJinSo.

Thomas, D. (2015). In the classroom: Effective teaching at the university level. Saraburi, Thailand: SuJinSo.

van Drie, J., & Dekker, R. (2013). Theoretical triangulation as an approach for revealing the complexity of a classroom discussion. British Educational Research Journal, 39(2), 338-360.




How to Cite

Darrin Thomas. (2023). Development of a classroom discussion scale for self-assessment purposes by high school students and teachers. Journal of Current Science and Technology, 7(1), 33–40. Retrieved from



Research Article