Evaluation of pretreatment with curcumin, vitamin C, or their combination on cadmium-induced toxicity on rat kidney, stomach and small intestine
Keywords:cadmium (Cd), Cd-induced toxicity, curcumin, kidney, rats, small intestine, stomach, vitamin C
Curcumin (Cur), a biologically active compound from turmeric, and vitamin C (VitC), act as a natural antioxidant and a potent chemopreventive agent. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the combined pretreatment with Cur and VitC offered more beneficial effects than that provided by either of them alone in reversing cadmium (Cd)-induced toxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats, equally divided into control and seven treatment groups; Cd (as CdCl2 5 mg/kg), Cur 400 mg/kg, VitC 100 mg/kg+Cd, Cur 200 mg/kg+Cd, Cur 400 mg/kg+Cd, Cur200+VitC+Cd and Cur400+VitC+Cd. Cur or VitC was given daily by oral gavage for 1 h before Cd administration. All groups were treated for 27 days. The results showed that Cd treatment significantly increased lipid peroxidation (MDA) levels and significantly decreased the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in renal tissue. Moreover, the histological analysis revealed damages to the renal cortex, gastric mucosa and villi of the small intestine. The pretreatment with Cur alone (both 200 and 400 mg/kg) could protect from the changes induced by Cd although not statistically significant. VitC treatment alone showed no protection. However, the combined Cur and VitC pretreatment was significantly more effective in reducing such damages from Cd treatment and was able to reverse the effects to levels similar to that of control (particularly in Cur 400 mg/kg). In conclusion, our research suggests that Cur (both 200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly protects the animals to the same extent (no statistical significance) but in the presence of VitC, which showed no protective effect by itself, superiority of Cur 400 mg/kg over 200 mg/kg was demonstrated.
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