The effectiveness of video and handbook learning media on acquisition of knowledge on healthcare process in liver cancer patients received first trans-arterial chemoembolization: A randomized control-trial


  • Ruechuta Molek Inpatient Liver Cancer Department, Chulabhorn Hospital, Bangkok 10210, Thailand
  • Kamolchanok Boonprachack Inpatient Liver Cancer Department, Chulabhorn Hospital, Bangkok 10210, Thailand
  • Dararat Chuwongin Nursing Department, Chulabhorn Hospital, Bangkok 10210, Thailand
  • Sunisa Yungyuen Intervention Radiology Department, Chulabhorn Hospital, Bangkok 10210, Thailand
  • Benjamas Preechakoon Nursing Department, Chulabhorn Hospital, Bangkok 10210, Thailand
  • Marisa Sombutboon Nursing Department, Chulabhorn Hospital, Bangkok 10210, Thailand


handbook learning media, health education, knowledge retention, video learning media


Background and significance: Trans-arterial chemoembolization becomes a treatment of choice among liver cancer patients.  Normally, patients are anxious and terrified to the procedure.  This is due to the incomprehension and lack of knowledge.  Aim of the study: Investigators would like to compare the effectiveness of video and handbook learning media.  Method: A purposive sampling of 80 volunteered, literate, liver cancer patients, aged >18, was enrolled in the study.  After 40-item pretest, participants were randomized equally into two groups.  The experimental group watched the video, while the control group studied the handbook.  Both materials contained the same didactic information.  Consequently, the post-test was performed immediately.  Moreover, the final test was implemented within 45-60 days. Pre and post-test scores as well as pre and final test scores were calculated for the relative growth scores and the knowledge retention scores respectively.  Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, and analyzed by Independent t-test, Exact probability and Mann-Whitney U test.  Findings: The demographic characteristics were insignificant differences between the two groups.  However, the study illustrated that the video had higher relative growth and retention of knowledge scores than that of the handbook significantly.  Conclusion: The video was more effective than the handbook in promoting health education on Trans-arterial chemoembolization.  Implications for nursing practice: video learning media was an effective educational tool to improve memorization.  In addition, the knowledge retention score yielded the best prediction on academic gains.


Albert, N. M., Buchsbaum, R., & Li, J. (2007). Randomized study of the effect of video education on heart failure healthcare utilization, symptoms, and self-care behaviors. Patient education and counseling, 69(1-3), 129-139. DOI: 10.1016/j.pec.2007.08.007

American College Health Association (n.d.). Health Education/Health Promotion. Available at: Topics/Health_Promotion.aspx.

Armstrong, A. W., Idriss, N. Z., & Kim, R. H. (2011). Effects of video-based, online

education on behavioral and knowledge outcomes in sunscreen use: a randomized controlled trial. Patient education and counseling, 83(2), 273-277. DOI: 10.1016/j.pec.2010.04.033

Čepon, S. (2013). Effective use of the media: Video in the foreign language classroom. Medijska istraživanja: znanstveno-stručni časopis za novinarstvo i medije, 19(1), 83-105.

Clark, T. W. (2006). Complications of hepatic chemoembolization. Seminars in interventional radiology, 23(2), 119-125. DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-941442

Demaidi, N. M. (2018). What is the difference between absolute and relative learning gain in pre-test post-test design?. Research Gate., Question Asked 4 years ago. Avilable at:

Ferenci, P., Fried, M., Labrecque, D., Bruix, J., Sherman, M., Omata, M., . . . Zheng, S. S. (2010). World gastroenterology organisation global guideline. Hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc): A global perspective. Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases, 19(3), 311-317.

Ferlay, J., Soerjomataram, I., Dikshit, R., Eser, S., Mathers, C., Rebelo, M., . . . Bray, F. (2015). Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. International journal of cancer, 136(5), E359-E386. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.29210

Guyton, W., & Hall, J. (2006). Textbook of Medical Physiology E-Book: The Nervous System: B. The Special Senses. 11th ed. Philadelphia, USA: Elsevier Health Sciences, CHAPTER 49, 613-624.

Hansmann, J. (2018). The top 8 skills every healthcare process improvement leader must have. Health Catalysts. Available at: improvement.

Jagodzinski, P., & Wolski, R. (2011). Comparative study of effectiveness of the multimedia handbook and internet methods in education of students and teachers of science. US-China Education Review B 3 (2011) 335-341. Online Submission:

Jia, Z., & Jiang, G. (2017). Regarding the ‘Role of low-molecular-weight heparins in prevention of thromboembolic complication after transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma’. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, 29(6), 737. DOI: 10.1097/MEG.0000000000000859

Kanjanawasee, S. (1990). Alternative strategies for policy analysis: An assessment of school effects on students' cognitive and affective mathematics outcomes in lower secondary schools in Thailand. Google Books.

Llovet, J. M., Real, M. I., Montaña, X., Planas, R., Coll, S., Aponte, J., . . . Rodés, J. (2002). Arterial embolisation or chemoembolisation versus symptomatic treatment in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 359(9319), 1734-1739. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08649-X

Mittal, S., & El-Serag, H. B. (2013). Epidemiology of HCC: consider the population. Journal of clinical gastroenterology, 47, S2.

Moonaghi, H. K., Derakhshan, A., Valai, N., & Mortazavi, F. (2003). The effectiveness of video-based education on gaining practical learning skills in comparison with demonstrating method’s effectiveness among university students. Journal of Medical Education, 4(1), 27-30.

Salina, L., Ruffinengo, C., Garrino, L., Massariello, P., Charrier, L., Martin, B., . . . Dimonte, V. (2012). Effectiveness of an educational video as an instrument to refresh and reinforce the learning of a nursing technique: a randomized controlled trial. Perspectives on medical education, 1(2), 67-75. DOI: 10.1007/s40037-012-0013-4

Vichitvejpaisal, P., Sitthikongsak, S., Preechakoon, B., Kraiprasit, K., Parakkamodom, S., Manon, C., & Petcharatana, S. (2001). Does computer‐assisted instruction really help to improve the learning process? Medical education, 35(10), 983-989.

Vichitvejpaisal, P., Panjamawat, T., & Varasunun, P. (2011). A comparison of knowledge retention between online and in-class problem-based learning. South-East Asian Journal of Medical Education, 25(2), 41-48.

Vichitvejpaisal, P., Panjamawat, T., & Varasunun, P. (2014). Which model is the best predictor of learning achievement: raw score, relative growth or knowledge retention score. South-East Asian Journal of Medical Education, 8(1), 66-71.

Wakefield, M. A., Loken, B., & Hornik, R. C. (2010). Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour. The Lancet, 376(9748), 1261-1271. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60809-4

Yang, H. I., Lu, S. N., Liaw, Y. F., You, S. L., Sun, C. A., Wang, L. Y., . . . Chen, C. J. (2002). Hepatitis B e antigen and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. New England Journal of Medicine, 347(3), 168-174.




How to Cite

Ruechuta Molek, Kamolchanok Boonprachack, Dararat Chuwongin, Sunisa Yungyuen, Benjamas Preechakoon, & Marisa Sombutboon. (2023). The effectiveness of video and handbook learning media on acquisition of knowledge on healthcare process in liver cancer patients received first trans-arterial chemoembolization: A randomized control-trial. Journal of Current Science and Technology, 8(2), 107–112. Retrieved from



Research Article