Pretreatment study of turmeric rhizomes and optimization of drying methods using microwave oven and hot air oven to obtain high quality of turmeric powder
Keywords:Curcuma longa L., curcuminoids, hot air oven, microwave oven, turmeric, volatile oil
Drying step is one of the important processes for plant preparation to use in medicinal and dietary products. There are many methods for drying; for example, using solar, hot air oven, and freeze dry. In this study, drying used hot air oven and microwave oven were compared. Quality of turmeric powder obtained from microwave oven and hot air oven was studied. Total curcuminoids, volatile oil contents, total ash, acid insoluble ash, moisture and ethanol soluble extractives were tested according to Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia methods. There were six of turmeric powders and they were collected from the same area. Six samples were divided for boiled and unboiled in the pretreatment step and dried using microwave and hot air ovens. The results showed that drying methods either from microwave oven or hot air oven did not give any significantly differences. Total curcuminoid (7.85-8.58 %w/w) and volatile oil (5.00-7.00 %v/w) contents were met the standard criteria of WHO. However, boiling step yielded less volatile oil contents. HPLC analysis showed that there were similar profiles of curcumin, bisdesmethoxycurcumin, and desmethoxycurcumin among these samples. There was not significantly difference of curcumin content between boiled and unboiled samples, although curcumin content was slightly higher in microwave (2.84-3.77 %w/w) drying method compared with hot air oven (2.69-2.96 %w/w). Drying turmeric powder using microwave oven can reduce time and result in equivalent quality compared with drying in hot air oven.
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