The extraction of lipid from microalgae found in brackish water by terpenes
Keywords:brackish water, extraction of lipid, green solvents, lipid extraction, microalgae, terpenes
In this research, terpenes were used to evaluate the extraction of lipids from microalgae found in brackish water. p-Cymene, α-pinene, and d-limonene terpenes were used instead of petroleum-based solvents, which have a low boiling point and are toxic as well as highly flammable. The physical and thermal pretreatment method of grinding and then autoclaving at a temperature of 121°C and a pressure of 15 lb/in2 was investigated to enhance the lipid extraction efficiency and excrete the intracellular lipid. The amount of lipid extracted by p-cymene was 29.23 ± 0.25 % (lipid wt./dry.wt. microalgae), whereas the amount of lipid extracted by n-hexane:methanol 3:1( v/v) was 13.5 ± 0.20 % (lipid wt./ dry.wt. microalgae). The quantity of fatty acid extracted from the microalgae was determined using GC-MS analysis. The results showed that the two main fatty acids were palmitic acid (C6H12O2; 16:0) and oleic acid (C18H34O2; C18:1). There was more palmitic acid (16:0) than oleic acid (C18:1) at 7.70% and 7.08%, respectively. This research found that using natural solvents to extract lipid from microalgae could be a feasible and sustainable alternative to petroleum solvents which are toxic, environmentally unfriendly and increase greenhouse gases causing climate change.
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