COVID-19 pandemic and vitamin D deficiency: a different approach with an analysis of the findings and a complimentary proposal


  • Virna M. Martín Giménez Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias Químicas, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Tecnológicas, Universidad Católica de Cuyo, San Juan, Argentina
  • Ivana Bergam Croatia osiguranje, Pension Company for voluntary pension fund management, Vatroslava Jagića 33, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
  • Felipe Inserra Universidad Maimónides, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • León Ferder Universidad Maimónides, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Russel J. Reiter Department of Cell Systems and Anatomy, UT Health San Antonio Long School of Medicine, San Antonio, TX, USA
  • Walter Manucha Área de Farmacología, Departamento de Patología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina. and Instituto de Medicina y Biología Experimental de Cuyo (IMBECU), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas (CONICET), Mendoza, Argentina.


COVID-19, geographical differences, seasonal immune system, vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D status


Vitamin D is an essential immune-modulator with receptors widely distributed throughout the body, and its serum levels fluctuate significantly in individuals between winter and summer months.  This study examines the association between low vitamin D status and prevalence of COVID-19 cases around the world and proposes a relationship with the seasonal character of the human immune system strength rather than to the seasonal infectivity of viruses.  Also, this review suggests that the observed geographical disparities in COVID-19 cases are due to differences in vitamin D levels.  On the international scale, serum vitamin D levels are reportedly lowest in China, the Middle East, and South Europe; these populations also had the largest outbreaks of COVID-19 casesIn addition to the geographical differences in vitamin D status, there are known risk groups (ethnic, age-related, pregnancies).  In contrast, some countries including Canada, Finland, and North Europe incorporate increased amounts of vitamin D through fortified foods, vitamin D supplements, and sunbathing.  These countries show the lowest morbidity and mortality rates by COVID-19 infection and demonstrate that lower ambient temperatures do not contribute to a higher number of COVID-19 cases.  COVID-19 has spread around the globe almost simultaneously in both warm and cold areas.  Given this information, vitamin D measurement should become an essential component of public health monitoring as a biomarker of immunity status.  Clinical trials should be conducted to confirm this hypothesis.  COVID-19 tests should be performed together with vitamin D status tests to verify this proposed relationship.


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How to Cite

Virna M. Martín Giménez, Ivana Bergam, Felipe Inserra, León Ferder, Russel J. Reiter, & Walter Manucha. (2023). COVID-19 pandemic and vitamin D deficiency: a different approach with an analysis of the findings and a complimentary proposal. Journal of Current Science and Technology, 11(1), 148–157. Retrieved from



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