Microwave-assisted extraction of curcuminoids from organic Curcuma longa L. in different oil types for cosmetic purpose: An optimization approach
Keywords:Box-Behnken design, cosmetic purpose, curcuminoid, microwave-assisted extraction, oil, optimization, turmeric
ingredients. The green microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique has recently been applied to extract C. longa bioactive compounds. The MAE parameters of organic C. longa were investigated to maximize curcuminoid content. The Box-Behnken design was applied to control three factors including solid amount, duration time, and number of irradiation cycles, while five responses as production yield, bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) content, demethoxycurcumin (DMC) content, curcumin (CUR) content, and total curcuminoid content were monitored. Coconut oil was used as an extraction solvent. Results showed that production yield was high for low solid amount, long duration time, and high number of irradiation cycles, while high BDMC, DMC, CUR, and total curcuminoid contents were obtained at high solid amount, long duration time, and high number of irradiation cycles. The optimum condition giving the maximum total curcuminoid content was solid amount 6 g per 20 mL of coconut oil, duration time 1.5 min, and 3 irradiation cycles. This condition gave production yield of 66.10 ± 1.80%, BDMC content of 4.37 ± 0.08 mg/g, DMC content of 2.97 ± 0.05 mg/g, CUR content of 8.03 ± 0.16 mg/g, and total curcuminoid content of 15.37 ± 0.28 mg/g. The prediction by computer software was accurate with low percentage error. Optimum condition for curcuminoid extraction was investigated using ten different oil samples as almond oil, castor oil, two olive oils (A and B), peanut oil, rice bran oil, two sesame oils (A and B), and two sunflower oils (A and B). All oil samples gave comparable production yield to coconut oil, except for almond oil and sesame oil A that produced significantly higher production yield. Castor oil extracted the highest individual and total curcuminoid contents, comparable to coconut oil. Stability data indicated that castor oil gave the most stable curcuminoids when stored at 30°C and 40°C for three months. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of organic C. longa was successfully achieved. Results can be used as a guide for the selection of oil type to prepare ready-to-use curcuminoid-oil mixtures as ingredients in cosmetic formulations.
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