Olfactory effects of d-Borneol on psychophysiological parameters among healthy participants
Keywords:d-borneol, EEG, emotional states, psychophysiological parameters, stimulating effects
d-Borneol (C10H18O) is a highly lipid-soluble bicyclic monoterpene alcohol widely used in a variety of traditional remedies. However, current studies on the inhalation of d-borneol remain limited in terms of CNS, ANS and emotional states. This study aimed to investigate the effects of d-borneol inhalation on psychophysiological parameters among healthy participants. Twenty-four healthy participants were recruited for participation in trials. The current research determined the changes in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) through physiological parameters, central nervous system (CNS) through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings, and psychological parameters through emotional states. EEG recordings were conducted based on 10-20 systems, and EEG band power was calculated by Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). For data analysis, d-borneol was inhaled and compared with sweet almond oil as base oil. Paired t-test was employed to measure the oil inhalation. The findings indicated that d-borneol inhalation could cause effects on (1) ANS physiological parameters by significantly increasing systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate, (2) psychological parameters of emotional states by significantly increasing the mean scores for good, active, fresh, romantic feelings while considerably decreasing the mean scores for bad, stressed, frustrated, annoyed, and disgusted feelings, and (3) EEG parameters by significantly increasing the power of the beta waves in the left and right areas of the posterior brain. In summary, d-borneol caused significant changes in psychophysiological parameters, indicating the stimulating effects of d-borneol inhalation. The results in this study would be useful as scientific evidence for future research conducted on other groups of participants.
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