Microscopic identification, GC-MS analysis of essential oil and antioxidant activity of Artemisia roxburghiana


  • Ankit Kumar Research and Development Centre, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Uttarakhand Ayurved University, Harrawala, Dehradun-248001, India
  • Ravindra Semwal Research and Development Centre, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Uttarakhand Ayurved University, Harrawala, Dehradun-248001, India
  • Ashutosh Chauhan Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Uttarakhand Ayurved University, Harrawala, Dehradun-248001, India
  • Ruchi Badoni Semwal Department of Chemistry, VSKC Government Postgraduate College, Dakpathar-248125, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
  • Harish Chandra Andola School of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resources, Doon University, Dehradun-248001, India
  • Sunil Kumar Joshi Uttarakhand Ayurved University, Harrawala, Dehradun-248001, India
  • Deepak Kumar Semwal Department of Phytochemistry, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Uttarakhand Ayurved University, Harrawala, Dehradun-248001, India


antimalarial activity, artemisia, essential oil, medicinal plants, microscopy, quality control


Artemisia roxburghiana Wall. ex Besser, belongs to the family Compositae, is used as folk medicine against various ailments including diabetes mellitus. An essential oil found in its aerial parts was found effective as an insect repellant. The present study aims to establish the microscopic identification of Artemisia roxburghiana, characterise its essential oil and evaluate its antioxidative effect. The microscopic characterisation of the leaf, stem and root of the plant was carried out using a compound microscope under 4x, 10x, 40x and 100x magnification. The essential oil was isolated by the hydro-distillation method and characterised with the help of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The hydro-alcoholic extract and essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of the plant were evaluated for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH assay. The microscopic studies revealed that the leaf has a single-layered upper epidermis with multicellular trichomes whereas the stem has single-layered epidermal cells, compactly arranged without intercellular spaces. The epidermis of the root is double-layered, thin-walled and colourless without intercellular spaces. The GC-MS studies found α-eudesmole (6.52%), trans sabinene hydrate (6.02%), artemisia ketone (5.97%) and 1,8 cineole (4.92%) as the major volatile constituents present in the essential oil. The hydro-alcoholic extract of the aerial parts also showed DPPH scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 6.90±1.23 mg/mL when compared with rutin (IC50 = 0.65±0.11 mg/mL).  The study has successfully established the methods for microscopic characterisation and essential oil analysis of Artemisia roxburghiana


Adams, R. P. (2017). Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. 5th Ed. Texensis Publishing Gruver, TX USA.

Ahmed, H. M., & Tavaszi-Sarosi, S. (2019). Identification and quantification of essential oil content and composition, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. Food Chemistry, 275, 730-738. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.09.155

Badoni, R., Semwal, D. K., & Rawat, U. (2009). Altitudinal variation in the volatile constituents of Artemisia nilagirica. International Journal of Essential Oil Therapeutics, 3, 66–68.

Baharum, S. N., Bunawan, H., Ghani, M. A., Mustapha, W. A., & Noor, N. M. (2010). Analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil of Polygonum minus Huds. using two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS). Molecules, 15(10), 7006–7015. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15107006

Bibi, S., Ahmed, Z., Dilawar, S., Iqbal M., Sheikh, S. H., Khalid, S., & Ahmad, M. T. (2021). Antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Artemisia Roxburghiana along with its qualitative and quantitative phytochemical Screening. Advances in Basic Medical Science, 5(1), 19-24.

Bicchi, C., Rubiolo, P., Marschall, H., Weyerstahl, P., & Laurent, R. (1998). Constituents of Artemisia roxburghiana Besser essential oil. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 13, 40-46. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1026(199801/02)13:1<40::AID-FFJ688>3.0.CO;2-Z

Bora, K. S., & Sharma, A. (2011). The genus Artemisia: a comprehensive review. Pharmaceutical Biology, 49(1), 101–109. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2010.497815

Fusani, P., Ronga, D., Carminati, D., Mandrioli, M., Manicardi, G. C., Giannì, S., & Tava, A. (2022). Composition and biological activity of essential oils from Artemisia roxburghiana Besser and Elsholtzia fruticosa Rehder cultivated in Italy. Industrial Crops and Products, 187, 115317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2022.115317

Haider, F., Kumar, N., Banerjee, S., Naqvi, A. A., & Bagchi, G. D., (2009). Effect of Altitude on the Essential Oil Constituents of Artemisia roxburghiana Besser var. purpurascens (Jacq.) Hook. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 21(4), 303-304. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2009.9700177

Janaćković, P., Rajčević, N., Gavrilović, M., Novaković, J., Giweli, A., Stešević, D., & Marin, P. D. (2019). Essential oil composition of five Artemisia (Compositae) species in regards to chemophenetics. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 87, 103960. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2019.103960

Juteau, F., Masotti, V., Bessière, J. M., Dherbomez, M., & Viano, J. (2002). Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia annua essential oil. Fitoterapia, 73(6), 532-535. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(02)00175-2

Khandelwal, K. R. (2005). Practical Pharmacognosy Techniques & Experiments. New Delhi, India: Nirali Prakashan.

Kumar, A., Aswal, S., Chauhan, A., Semwal, R. B., Singh, R., Andola, H. C., ... & Semwal, D. K. (2022). Antidiabetic effect of aqueous-ethanol extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia roxburghiana. Natural Product Research, 36(5), 1300–1305. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1858414

Kumar, A., Aswal, S., Semwal, R. B., Chauhan, A., & Semwal, D. K. (2019). Insights on the pharmacological, phytochemical and ethnobotanical aspects of Artemisia roxburghiana: a rather less explored but therapeutically important species of lower Himalayas. Phytochemistry Reviews, 18(1), 199–214. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-018-9589-6

Kumar, D., Kumar, K., Kumar, S., Kumar, T., Kumar, A., & Prakash, O. (2012). Pharmacognostic evaluation of leaf and root bark of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2(3), 169–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60036-7

Kumar, N., Saxena, G., Goswami, R., Pant, A., & Sameul, A. (2018). Pharmacognostical and standardization parameters of Artemisia roxburghiana Wall. Ex Besser (aerial parts). Pharma Innovation, 7(11), 524-527.

Mathela, C. S., Kharkwal, H., & Shah, G. C. (1994). Essential Oil Composition of Some Himalayan Artemisia Species. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 6(4), 345-348. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.1994.9698397

Ornano, L., Venditti, A., Ballero, M., Sanna, C., Donno, Y., Quassinti, L., ... & Bianco, A. (2016). Essential oil composition and biological activity from Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora (Viv.) Gamisans ex Kerguélen & Lambinon (Asteraceae), an endemic species in the habitat of La Maddalena Archipelago. Natural Product Research, 30(16), 1802–1809. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2015.1079190

Ornano, L., Venditti, A., Ballero, M., Sanna, C., Quassinti, L., Bramucci, M., ... & Bianco, A. (2013). Chemopreventive and antioxidant activity of the chamazulene-rich essential oil obtained from Artemisia arborescens L. growing on the Isle of La Maddalena, Sardinia, Italy. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 10(8), 1464–1474. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201200435

Salehi, S., Mirzaie, A., Sadat Shandiz, S. A., Noorbazargan, H., Rahimi, A., Yarmohammadi, S., & Ashrafi, F. (2017). Chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel extract. Natural product research, 31(4), 469–472. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2016.1174234

Sampietro, D. A., Lizarraga, E. F., Ibatayev, Z. A., Omarova, A. B., Suleimen, Y. M., & Catalán, C. A. (2016). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Acantholippia deserticola, Artemisia proceriformis, Achillea micrantha and Libanotis buchtormensis against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Natural Product Research, 30(17), 1950–1955. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2015.1091453

Semwal, D. K., Chauhan, A., Chaube, S., Joshi, N. C., Semwal, R. B., Kumar, A., & Aswal, S. (2019). Ant and mosquito repellent composition and process of preparation thereof. Mumbai, India: Indian Patent.

Semwal, D. K., Dahiya, R. S., Joshi, N., Semwal, R. B., Aswal, S., Kumar, A., ... & Kumar, A. (2018). Preclinical and clinical studies to evaluate the effect of Carica papaya leaf extract on platelets. Current Traditional Medicine, 4(4), 297-304. https://doi.org/10.2174/2215083805666190124162640

Shah, M. R., Ishtiaq, Hizbullah, S. M., Habtemariam, S., Zarrelli, A., Muhammad, A., ... & Khan, I. (2016). Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors isolated from Artemisia roxburghiana. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, 31(4), 563–567. https://doi.org/10.3109

Singh, D., Aeri, V., & Ananthanarayana, D. B. (2018). Development of internet technology TIPHAM (Tool for identity of Powdered Herbals through Analytical Microscopy) for microscopic identification of crude herbal drugs. Pharmacognosy Magazine, 14(55), 213-226. https://doi.org/10.4103/pm.pm_563_17

Stanković, N., Mihajilov-Krstev, T., Zlatković, B., Stankov-Jovanović, V., Mitić, V., Jović, J., ... & Bernstein, N. (2016). Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of traditional medicinal plants from the Balkan Peninsula. NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, 78, 21-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.njas.2015.12.006

The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. Published on the Internet. Retrieved form http://www.theplantlist.org/

Tundis, R., Leporini, M., Bonesi, M., Rovito, S., & Passalacqua, N. G. (2020). Salvia officinalis L. from Italy: A Comparative Chemical and Biological Study of Its Essential Oil in the Mediterranean Context. Molecules, 25(24), 5826. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245826

Vallès, J., Torrell, M., Garnatje, T., Garcia‐Jacas, N., Vilatersana, R., & Susanna A. (2003). The Genus Artemisia and its Allies: Phylogeny of the Subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae, Anthemideae) Based on Nucleotide Sequences of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS). Plant Biology, 5(3), 274-284. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2003-40790

Van Den Dool, H., & Kratz, P. D. (1963). A generalization of the retention index system including linear temperature programmed gas-liquid partition chromatography. Journal of Chromatography, 11, 463–471. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(01)80947-x

Veena, S., & Pracheta, S. (2013). Microscopic Studies and Preliminary Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Euphorbia neriifolia L. Leaves. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 4(4), 348-357.

Wang, Y., Lou, L., Wang, J., Lu, J., Li, J., & Jia, L. (2018). Comparative study on Artemisia halodendron Turcz. and its two related plants by GC-MS analysis and protective effect against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Natural Product Research, 32(11), 1303–1306. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1340284

World Health Organization (WHO). (2011). Quality control methods for herbal materials. Switzerland: WHO Press

Yang, K., Liu, Q. Z., Liu, Z. L., & Du, S. S. (2012). GC-MS analysis of insecticidal essential oil of aerial parts of Paederia scandens (Lour) Merrill (Rubiaceae). Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 11(3), 461-467. https://doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v11i3.16

Yu, D. Q., Han, X. J., Shan, T. Y., Xu, R., Hu, J., Cheng, W. X., ... & Peng, H. S. (2019). Microscopic Characteristic and Chemical Composition Analysis of Three Medicinal Plants and Surface Frosts. Molecules, 24(24), 4548. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244548




How to Cite

Kumar, A., Semwal, R., Chauhan, A., Semwal, R. B., Andola, H. C., Joshi, S. K., & Semwal, D. K. (2023). Microscopic identification, GC-MS analysis of essential oil and antioxidant activity of Artemisia roxburghiana. Journal of Current Science and Technology, 13(1), 36–45. Retrieved from https://ph04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/JCST/article/view/202



Research Article