Biomechanical evaluation of rice farmers during paddy threshing activity


  • Agung Kristanto Industrial Engineering Department, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, 55166, Indonesia
  • Choirul Bariyah Industrial Engineering Department, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, 55166, Indonesia
  • Afan Kurniawan Industrial Engineering Department, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, 55166, Indonesia


3DSSPP, Biomechanical evaluation, L5/S1 back compression and shear forces, paddy threshing, rice farmer


The activity of paddy threshing has been associated with an increase in back injuries among rice farmers. Therefore, this research evaluated the compressive and shear forces at L5/S1 during a real paddy threshing task and identified the associated contributing biomechanics factors. Data were collected from thirty rice farmers with the 3DSSPP application used to compute their predicted L5/S1 compression and shear forces. Furthermore, the relationship between these two factors was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The result showed that ninety-three percent of paddy threshing activity exceeded the safe limit for the task of 1.588 kN for L5/S1 compression force at a mean and minimum-maximum range of 1.8223 kN and 1.522 – 2.079 kN. A combination of rice farmer’s weight, back flexion angle, and flexion angle at mean values of 65.53 kg, 73 degrees, and 35.13 degrees, predicted 76.9 percent of the compressive force variation. These findings can be used as a basis for developing some preventative measures and redesigning the rice paddy threshing equipment to minimize the forward bending of the trunk. Corrective exercises focusing on the back posture and specific to the rice threshing activities should be developed. In contrast, collaborative activities between rice farmers need to be promoted to minimize the hand load leading to compressive force at L5/S1.


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How to Cite

Kristanto, A., Bariyah, C., & Kurniawan, A. (2023). Biomechanical evaluation of rice farmers during paddy threshing activity. Journal of Current Science and Technology, 13(1), 12–22. Retrieved from



Research Article