Preparation and characterization of akara and senke cakes made from cowpea flour paste
Keywords:Akara, color, cowpea, flour, formulation, particle density, proteins, senke
Despite commercial acceptability as diets in some West African and South American households, the bulk of the world's population does not consider akara and senke to be foods due to a lack of scientific proof demonstrating their intrinsic benefits and formulation processes. The focus of this study, therefore, was to prepare and characterize akara and senke developed from dehulled (DH) and undehulled (UDH) cowpea. Sample A (100% DH), Sample B (100% UDH), Sample C (25% UDH: 75% DH), Sample D (75% UDH:25% DH), Sample E (50% UDH:50% DH). Analysis was carried out using standard methods. Results showed that samples E and A had the highest and lowest values for oil absorption capacity (OAC), water absorption capacity (WAC), and loose-packed density (LBD), respectively. Protein (17.40%), carbohydrate (42.33%), and energy (541.72 kcal/g) were the highest for samples A, D, and C, respectively. The fat content (14.44%) was the lowest in sample D, while sample B had the lowest ash content (3.18%). While sample C had the highest L value (50.94), a (13.14) and b (-6.13) were the lowest in sample A. The sensory qualities showed that senke made from Sample E had the highest ratings (except for color) in all the sensory parameters. The average overall acceptability was 7.13, and statistical analysis revealed no significant (p<0.05) differences among the samples. Formulation of dehulled and undehulled cowpea flour paste as cakes has intrinsic nutritional benefits and their consumption should be encouraged globally.
Abdul Rahman, N., Larbi, A., Kotu, B., Marthy Tetteh, F., & Hoeschle-Zeledon, I. (2018). Does nitrogen matter for legumes? Starter nitrogen effects on biological and economic benefits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Guinea and Sudan Savanna of West Africa. Agronomy, 8(7), Article 120. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy8070120
Adedokun, S. O. (2006). Effect of packaging material and storage condition on quality attributes of “Aadun” (A maize-based Nigerian snacks) [Doctoral dissertation]. Department of Food Science & Technology, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta.
Aidoo, R., Oduro, I. N., Agbenorhevi, J. K., Ellis, W. O., & Pepra-Ameyaw, N. B. (2022). Physicochemical and pasting properties of flour and starch from two new cassava accessions. International Journal of Food Properties, 25(1), 561–569. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2022.2052087
Akinjayeju, O., & Bisiriyu, K. T. (2004). Comparative studies of some properties of undehulled, mechanically dehulled and manually dehulled cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp. L.) flours. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 39(4), 355–360. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.00792.x
Akusu, O. M., & Wordu, G. O. (2017). Proxmate, Phytic acid Content and In-vitro Protein Digestibility of “Akara” Prepared from Cowpea/Maize Flour Blends from Nigeria. Indian Journal of Nutrition, 4(5), Article 173.
Amidon, G. E., Meyer, P. J., & Mudie, D. M. (2017). Chapter 10—Particle, Powder, and Compact Characterization. Developing Solid Oral Dosage Forms, 2017, 271-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802447-8.00010-8
Anago, F. N., Agbangba, E. C., Oussou, B. T., Dagbenonbakin, G. D., & Amadji, L. G. (2021). Cultivation of cowpea challenges in west africa for food security: Analysis of factors driving yield gap in Benin. Agronomy, 11(6), Article 1139. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11061139
Annor, A., Ma, Z., & Boye, J. I. (2014). 14 Crops-LegumesGeorge. Retrived form https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/14-Crops-%E2%80%93-LegumesGeorge-Annor-Ma/8111fa5a1838c3ed461217b6994e81620ab69708
AOAC. (2005). Official Methods of Analysis. AOAC (2005) Official Methods of Analysis of Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Oxford University Press.
Appiah, F., Asibuo, J., & Patrick, K. (2011). Physicochemical and functional properties of bean flours of three cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) varieties in Ghana. African Journal of Food Science, 5, 100-104. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.911.51
Awuchi, C. G., Igwe, V. S., & Echeta, C. K. (2019). The functional properties of foods and flours. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 5(11), 139-160.
Barnes, M., Uruakpa, F., & Udenigwe, C. (2015). Influence of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) peptides on insulin resistance. Journal of Nutritional Health & Food Science, 3, 1–3. https://doi.org/10.15226/jnhfs.2015.00144
Bermudez, A. A., Paternina, G. A., & Hernandez, E. J. (2018). Properties of Color, Texture and Sensorial Analysis of Small Cowpea Bean Bunuelounder Deep Frying. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 11(44), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2018/v11i44/137793
Carbonaro, M., & Nucara, A. (2022). Legume proteins and peptides as compounds in nutraceuticals: a structural basis for dietary health effects. Nutrients, 14(6), 1188. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061188
Chandra, S. (2013). Assessment of functional properties of different flours. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(38), 4849–4852. http://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2013.6905
Choudhury, A. K. R. (2014). 7 - Using instruments to quantify colour. Principles of Colour and Appearance Measurement, 2014, 270–317. https://doi.org/10.1533/9780857099242.270
Dania, M. I., Oladebeye, A. A., Adejumo, P. O., & Olukoya, F. O. (2021). Functional and Antinutrients Properties of Undehulled Enriched Beans Flour. International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Development, 4(2), 153–160.
Darkwa, S., Teye, M., & Darko, P. (2021). Use of cowpea (vigna unguiculata) as substitute for wheat flour in the preparation of snacks. International Journal of Home Economics, 14(2), 19–29.
Falade, K. O., & Oyeyinka, S. A. (2015). Color, Chemical and Functional Properties of Plantain Cultivars and Cooking Banana Flour as Affected by Drying Method and Maturity. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 39(6), 816–828. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.12292
Falade, K., & Oyeyinka, S. (2014). Color, Chemical and Functional Properties of Plantain Cultivars and Cooking Banana Flour as Affected by Drying Method and Maturity. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 39(6), 816-828. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.12292
Fernández-Peláez, J., Guerra, P., Gallego, C., & Gomez, M. (2021). Physical properties of flours obtained from wasted bread crusts and crumbs. Foods, 10(2), Article 282. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020282
Frota, K. M. G., Mendonça, S., Saldiva, P. H. N., Cruz, R. J., & Arêas, J. A. G. (2008). Cholesterol-Lowering Properties of Whole Cowpea Seed and Its Protein Isolate in Hamsters. Journal of Food Science, 73(9), H235–H240. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00953.x
Hamid, S., Muzaffar, S., Wani, I. A., Masoodi, F. A., & Bhat, M. M. (2016). Physical and cooking characteristics of two cowpea cultivars grown in temperate Indian climate. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 15(2), 127–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2014.08.002
Hartati, Y., & Royanda, R. (2021). The Effect of Substitution of Mungabean Flour and Tapioca on the Acceptability of Pie Shells as a Source of Fiber and Potassium. In First International Conference on Health, Social Sciences and Technology (ICOHSST 2020), (pp. 270–277). https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.210415.056
Hemdane, S., Langenaeken, N. A., Jacobs, P. J., Verspreet, J., Delcour, J. A., & Courtin, C. M. (2016). Study of the intrinsic properties of wheat bran and pearlings obtained by sequential debranning and their role in bran-enriched bread making. Journal of Cereal Science, 71, 78–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2016.08.003
Ertop, M. H., Bektaş, M., & Atasoy, R. (2020). Effect of cereals milling on the contents of phytic acid and digestibility of minerals and protein. Ukrainian Food Journal, 9(1), 136-147. https://doi.org/10.24263/2304-974X-2020-9-1-12
Hung, Y. C., & McWatters, K. H. (1990). Effect of holding time on the functionality of cowpea paste and quality of akara. Journal of food science, 55(2), 558-559. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1990.tb06811.x
Hussein, J. B., Ilesanmi, J. O. Y., Aliyu, H. M., & Akogwu, V. (2020). Chemical and sensory qualities of moimoi and akara produced from blends of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and Moringa oleifera seed flour. Nigerian Journal of Technological Research, 15(3), 15-23. https://doi.org/10.4314/njtr.v15i3.3
Ibiwumi, A. A. R., Oluranti, O. J., & Olanrewaju, A. A. (2021). Optimization of Processing Conditions of Akara Egbe from Cowpea Substituted with Bambara Groundnut. International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology, 6(2), 45-52. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijfsb.20210602.14
Ilesanmi, J. O. Y., & Gungula, D. T. (2016). Functional Properties of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Flour preserved with Mixtures of Neem (Azadichata Indica A.Juss) and Moringa (Moringa Oleifera) Seed Oils. International Journal of Sciences, 5(06), 142–151. https://doi.org/10.18483/ijSci.1077
Jayathilake, C., Visvanathan, R., Deen, A., Bangamuwage, R., Jayawardana, B. C., Nammi, S., & Liyanage, R. (2018). Cowpea: an overview on its nutritional facts and health benefits. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 98(13), 4793-4806. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9074
Kaushal, P., Kumar, V., & Sharma, H. K. (2012). Comparative study of physicochemical, functional, antinutritional and pasting properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta), rice (Oryza sativa) flour, pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) flour and their blends. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 48(1), 59-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.02.028
Kethireddipalli, P., Hung, Y.-C., Mcwatters, K. H., & Phillips, R. D. (2002). Effect of Milling Method (Wet and Dry) on the Functional Properties of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Pastes and End Product (Akara) Quality. Journal of Food Science, 67(1), 48–52. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb11357.x
Khalid, I. I., & Elharadallou, S. B. (2013). Functional properties of Cowpea (Vigna ungiculata L. Walp), and Lupin (Lupinus termis) flour and protein isolates. Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, 3(6), 1000234. https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9600.1000234
Kim, Y. H., & Shin, W. S. (2022). Evaluation of the physicochemical and functional properties of aquasoya (Glycine max Merr.) powder for vegan muffin preparation. Foods, 11(4), Article 591. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11040591
Linus-Chibuezeh, A., Okoye-Okeke, C., Adindu-Linus, C., & Iwe, M. O. (2021). Effect of Different Particle Sizes on The Akara Making Potentials of Pigeon Pea Flour. Indonesian Food Science & Technology Journal, 5(1), 26–33. https://doi.org/10.22437/ifstj.v5i1.14698
Makanjuola, O. M., Ogunmodede, A. S., Makanjuola, J. O., & Awonorin, S. O. (2012). Comparative study on quality attributes of gari obtained from some processing centres in South West, Nigeria. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 4(3), 135-140.
Mbofung, C. M. F., Rigby, N., & Waldron, K. W. (1999). Nutritional and Sensory Evaluation of Akara Made from Blends of Cowpea and Hard-to-Cook Mottled Brown Dry Beans. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47(12), 5232–5238. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf981332e
McWatters, K. H., Hung, C. Y., Hung, Y. C., Chinnan, M. S., & Phillips, R. D. (2001). Akara‐making characteristics of five US varieties of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata). Journal of Food quality, 24(1), 53-65. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.2001.tb00590.x
McWatters, K. H., Resurreccion, A. V. A., Fletcher, S. M., Peisher, A. V., & Andress, E. L. (1993). Physical and sensory characteristics of akara (fried cowpea paste) made from whole and decorticated cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata). LWT-Food Science and Technology, 26(2), 157-161. https://doi.org/10.1006/fstl.1993.1032
Mofoluke, A. A., Ramota, K. O., Adeoye, O. S., Toyin, O. A., & Olusegun, A. S. (2013). Physico-chemical Properties and akara making potentials of pre-processed Jack Beans (Canavalia ensiformis) and Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) Composite Flour. Croatian Journal of Food Technology, Biotechnology and Nutrition, 8(3-4), 102-110.
Moutaleb, O. H., Amadou, I., Amza, T., & Zhang, M. (2017). Physico-functional and sensory properties of cowpea flour based recipes (akara) and enriched with sweet potato. Journal of Nutritional Health & Food Engineering, 7(4), 325-330. https://doi.org/10.15406/jnhfe.2017.07.00243
Ngoma, T. N., Chimimba, U. K., Mwangwela, A. M., Thakwalakwa, C., Maleta, K. M., Manary, M. J., & Trehan, I. (2018). Effect of cowpea flour processing on the chemical properties and acceptability of a novel cowpea blended maize porridge. PloS one, 13(7), Article e0200418. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0200418
Oghbaei, M., & Prakash, J. (2016). Effect of primary processing of cereals and legumes on its nutritional quality: A comprehensive review. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 2(1), Article 1136015. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2015.1136015
Ogundele, G. F., Ojubanire, B. A., & Bamidele, O. P. (2014). Evaluation of various characteristics of akara (fried beans cake) made from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and soybean (Glycine max) blends. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences, 2(5), 455-459.
Olopade, A. A., Akingbala, J. O., Oguntunde, A. O., & Falade, K. O. (2003). Effect of processing method on the quality of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flour for akara preparation. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 58, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:QUAL.0000040353.90798.a2
Otunola, G. A., & Afolayan, A. J. (2018). Evaluation of the physicochemical, proximate, and sensory properties of moinmoin from blends of cowpea and water yam flour. Food science & nutrition, 6(4), 991-997. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.592
Plahar, M. A., Hung, Y. C., McWatters, K. H., Phillips, R. D., & Chinnan, M. S. (2006). Effect of saponins on the physical characteristics, composition and quality of akara (fried cowpea paste) made from non-decorticated cream cowpeas. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 39(3), 275-284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2005.01.003
Polak, R., Phillips, E. M., & Campbell, A. (2015). Legumes: health benefits and culinary approaches to increase intake. Clinical Diabetes, 33(4), 198-205. https://doi.org/10.2337/diaclin.33.4.198
Rogério, W. F., Greiner, R., Nunes, I. L., Feitosa, S., Furtunato, D. M. D. N., & Almeida, D. T. D. (2014). Effect of preparation practices and the cowpea cultivar Vigna unguiculata L. Walp on the quality and content of myo-inositol phosphate in akara (fried bean paste). Food Science and Technology, 34, 243-248. https://doi.org/10.1590/fst.2014.0040
Shafaei, S. M., Masoumi, A. A., & Roshan, H. (2016). Analysis of water absorption of bean and chickpea during soaking using Peleg model. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 15(2), 135–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2014.08.003
Singh, A., Hung, Y.-C., Phillips, R. D., Chinnan, M. S., & McWatters, K. H. (2004). Particle-size Distribution of Cowpea Flours Affects Quality of Akara (Fried Cowpea Paste). Journal of Food Science, 69(7), 243–249. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb13623.x
Tan, P., Hung, Y. C., & McWatters, K. H. (1995). Akara (fried cowpea paste) quality as affected by frying/reheating conditions. Journal of food science, 60(6), 1301-1306. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1995.tb04579.x
Thanatuksorn, P., Kajiwara, K., & Suzuki, T. (2009). Characteristics and oil absorption of deep-fat fried dough prepared from ball-milled wheat flour. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89(3), 363–371. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3442
Thompson, H. J., & Brick, M. A. (2016). Perspective: Closing the dietary fiber gap: An ancient solution for a 21st century problem. Advances in Nutrition, 7(4), 623-626. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.115.009696
Trehan, I., Benzoni, N. S., Wang, A. Z., Bollinger, L. B., Ngoma, T. N., Chimimba, U. K., ... & Manary, M. J. (2015). Common beans and cowpeas as complementary foods to reduce environmental enteric dysfunction and stunting in Malawian children: study protocol for two randomized controlled trials. Trials, 16(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-015-1027-0
Uyoh, E. A., Ita, E. E., & Nwofia, G. E. (2013). Evaluation of the chemical composition of tetrapleura tetraptera (schum and thonn.) taub. accessions from cross river state, Nigeria. International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 3(3), 386-394.
Vanchina, M. A., Chinnan, M. S., & McWatters, K. H. (2006). Effect of processing variables of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) meal on the functional properties of cowpea paste and quality of akara (fried cowpea paste). Journal of food quality, 29(5), 552-566. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.2006.00094.x
Wani, I. A., Sogi, D. S., Wani, A. A., & Gill, B. S. (2013). Physico-chemical and functional properties of flours from Indian kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 53(1), 278–284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2013.02.006
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.